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COCO 数据集目标检测等相关评测指标
COCO Detection Evaluation1. 评测指标定义COCO 提供了 12 种用于衡量目标检测...
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18
2019/01

COCO 数据集目标检测等相关评测指标

COCO Detection Evaluation

1. 评测指标定义

COCO 提供了 12 种用于衡量目标检测器性能的评价指标.

image

[1] - 除非特别说明,$AP$ 和 $AR$ 一般是在多个 IoU(Intersection over Union) 值间取平均值. 具体地,采用了 10 个 IoU阈值 - 0.50:0.05:0.95. 对比于传统的只计算单个 IoU 阈值(0.50)的指标(对应于这里的指标 $AP^{IoU=0.50}$),这是一种突破. 对多个 IoU 阈值求平均,能够使得目标检测器具有更好的定位位置.

[2] - $AP$ 是对所有类别的求平均值. 这在传统上被称为平均准确度(mAP, mean average precision). 这里并未区分 $AP$ 和 $mAP$(类似的,$AR$ 和$mAR$),假定从上下文中具有清晰的差异. 即:如,$AP^{50} = mAP^{50}$,$AP^{75} = mAP^{75}$,... 但,$AP^{50}$ 一定大于 $AP^{75}$.

[3] - $AP$ (所有 10 个 IoU 阈值和全部 80 个类别的平均值) 作为最终 COCO竞赛胜者的标准. 在考虑目标检测器再 COCO 上的性能时,这是单个最重要的评价度量指标.

[4] - COCO数据集中小目标物体数量比大目标物体更多. 具体地,标注的约有 41% 的目标物体是都很小的(small, 面积< 32x32=1024),约有 34% 的目标物体是中等的(medium, 1024=32x32 < 面积 < 96x96=9216),约有 24% 的目标物体是大的(large, 面积 > 96x96=9216). 面积(area) 是指 segmentation mask 中像素的数量.

[5] - $AR$ 是指每张图片中,在给定固定数量的检测结果中的最大召回(maximum recall),在所有 IoUs 和全部类别上求平均值. $AR$ 与 proposal evaluation 中所使用的相同,但这里 $AR$ 是按类别计算的.

[6] - 所有的评测指标允许每张图片(在全部的类别中)最多 100 个 top-scoring 检测结果进行计算.

[7] - 边界框(bounding boxes)的检测和segmentation mask 的所有评测指标是一致的,除了 IoU 的计算. 边界框的 IoU 计算是关于 boxes的 ,而 segmentation mask 的 IoU 计算是关于 masks 的.

2. 评测指标实现 - cocoeval

PythonAPI/pycocotools/cocoeval.py

评测参数如 :(括号里的默认值,一般不需要修改.)

image

通过调用 evaluate() 函数和 accumulate() 函数来运行,以计算得到衡量检测质量的两个数据结构(data structures).

这两个数据结构分别是 evalImageseval,其分别每张图片的检测质量和整个数据集上的聚合检测质量.

数据结构 evalImages 共有 KxA 个元素,每个元素表示一个评测设置;而数据结构 eval 将这些信息组合为 precision 和 recall 数组. 具体如下:

image

Python 中的定义如:

__author__ = 'tsungyi'

import numpy as np
import datetime
import time
from collections import defaultdict
from . import mask as maskUtils
import copy

class COCOeval:
    # COCO 数据集的检测评估接口.
    # The usage for CocoEval is as follows:
    #  cocoGt=..., cocoDt=...       # load dataset and results
    #  E = CocoEval(cocoGt,cocoDt); # initialize CocoEval object
    #  E.params.recThrs = ...;      # set parameters as desired
    #  E.evaluate();                # run per image evaluation
    #  E.accumulate();              # accumulate per image results
    #  E.summarize();               # display summary metrics of results
    # For example usage see evalDemo.m and http://mscoco.org/.
    #
    # The evaluation parameters are as follows (defaults in brackets):
    #  imgIds     - [all] N img ids to use for evaluation
    #  catIds     - [all] K cat ids to use for evaluation
    #  iouThrs    - [.5:.05:.95] T=10 IoU thresholds for evaluation
    #  recThrs    - [0:.01:1] R=101 recall thresholds for evaluation
    #  areaRng    - [...] A=4 object area ranges for evaluation
    #  maxDets    - [1 10 100] M=3 thresholds on max detections per image
    #  iouType    - ['segm'] set iouType to 'segm', 'bbox' or 'keypoints'
    #  iouType replaced the now DEPRECATED useSegm parameter.
    #  useCats    - [1] if true use category labels for evaluation
    # Note: if useCats=0 category labels are ignored as in proposal scoring.
    # Note: multiple areaRngs [Ax2] and maxDets [Mx1] can be specified.
    #
    # evaluate(): evaluates detections on every image and every category and
    # concats the results into the "evalImgs" with fields:
    #  dtIds      - [1xD] id for each of the D detections (dt)
    #  gtIds      - [1xG] id for each of the G ground truths (gt)
    #  dtMatches  - [TxD] matching gt id at each IoU or 0
    #  gtMatches  - [TxG] matching dt id at each IoU or 0
    #  dtScores   - [1xD] confidence of each dt
    #  gtIgnore   - [1xG] ignore flag for each gt
    #  dtIgnore   - [TxD] ignore flag for each dt at each IoU
    #
    # accumulate(): accumulates the per-image, per-category evaluation
    # results in "evalImgs" into the dictionary "eval" with fields:
    #  params     - parameters used for evaluation
    #  date       - date evaluation was performed
    #  counts     - [T,R,K,A,M] parameter dimensions (see above)
    #  precision  - [TxRxKxAxM] precision for every evaluation setting
    #  recall     - [TxKxAxM] max recall for every evaluation setting
    # Note: precision and recall==-1 for settings with no gt objects.
    #
    # See also coco, mask, pycocoDemo, pycocoEvalDemo
    #
    def __init__(self, cocoGt=None, cocoDt=None, iouType='segm'):
        '''
        Initialize CocoEval using coco APIs for gt and dt
        :param cocoGt: coco object with ground truth annotations
        :param cocoDt: coco object with detection results
        :return: None
        '''
        if not iouType:
            print('iouType not specified. use default iouType segm')
        self.cocoGt   = cocoGt              # ground truth COCO API
        self.cocoDt   = cocoDt              # detections COCO API
        self.params   = {}                  # evaluation parameters
        self.evalImgs = defaultdict(list)   # per-image per-category evaluation results [KxAxI] elements
        self.eval     = {}                  # accumulated evaluation results
        self._gts = defaultdict(list)       # gt for evaluation
        self._dts = defaultdict(list)       # dt for evaluation
        self.params = Params(iouType=iouType) # parameters
        self._paramsEval = {}               # parameters for evaluation
        self.stats = []                     # result summarization
        self.ious = {}                      # ious between all gts and dts
        if not cocoGt is None:
            self.params.imgIds = sorted(cocoGt.getImgIds())
            self.params.catIds = sorted(cocoGt.getCatIds())


    def _prepare(self):
        '''
        Prepare ._gts and ._dts for evaluation based on params
        :return: None
        '''
        def _toMask(anns, coco):
            # modify ann['segmentation'] by reference
            for ann in anns:
                rle = coco.annToRLE(ann)
                ann['segmentation'] = rle
        p = self.params
        if p.useCats:
            gts=self.cocoGt.loadAnns(self.cocoGt.getAnnIds(imgIds=p.imgIds, catIds=p.catIds))
            dts=self.cocoDt.loadAnns(self.cocoDt.getAnnIds(imgIds=p.imgIds, catIds=p.catIds))
        else:
            gts=self.cocoGt.loadAnns(self.cocoGt.getAnnIds(imgIds=p.imgIds))
            dts=self.cocoDt.loadAnns(self.cocoDt.getAnnIds(imgIds=p.imgIds))

        # convert ground truth to mask if iouType == 'segm'
        if p.iouType == 'segm':
            _toMask(gts, self.cocoGt)
            _toMask(dts, self.cocoDt)
        # set ignore flag
        for gt in gts:
            gt['ignore'] = gt['ignore'] if 'ignore' in gt else 0
            gt['ignore'] = 'iscrowd' in gt and gt['iscrowd']
            if p.iouType == 'keypoints':
                gt['ignore'] = (gt['num_keypoints'] == 0) or gt['ignore']
        self._gts = defaultdict(list)       # gt for evaluation
        self._dts = defaultdict(list)       # dt for evaluation
        for gt in gts:
            self._gts[gt['image_id'], gt['category_id']].append(gt)
        for dt in dts:
            self._dts[dt['image_id'], dt['category_id']].append(dt)
        self.evalImgs = defaultdict(list)   # per-image per-category evaluation results
        self.eval     = {}                  # accumulated evaluation results

    def evaluate(self):
        '''
        Run per image evaluation on given images and store results (a list of dict) in self.evalImgs
        :return: None
        '''
        tic = time.time()
        print('Running per image evaluation...')
        p = self.params
        # add backward compatibility if useSegm is specified in params
        if not p.useSegm is None:
            p.iouType = 'segm' if p.useSegm == 1 else 'bbox'
            print('useSegm (deprecated) is not None. Running {} evaluation'.format(p.iouType))
        print('Evaluate annotation type *{}*'.format(p.iouType))
        p.imgIds = list(np.unique(p.imgIds))
        if p.useCats:
            p.catIds = list(np.unique(p.catIds))
        p.maxDets = sorted(p.maxDets)
        self.params=p

        self._prepare()
        # loop through images, area range, max detection number
        catIds = p.catIds if p.useCats else [-1]

        if p.iouType == 'segm' or p.iouType == 'bbox':
            computeIoU = self.computeIoU
        elif p.iouType == 'keypoints':
            computeIoU = self.computeOks
        self.ious = {(imgId, catId): computeIoU(imgId, catId) \
                        for imgId in p.imgIds
                        for catId in catIds}

        evaluateImg = self.evaluateImg
        maxDet = p.maxDets[-1]
        self.evalImgs = [evaluateImg(imgId, catId, areaRng, maxDet)
                 for catId in catIds
                 for areaRng in p.areaRng
                 for imgId in p.imgIds
             ]
        self._paramsEval = copy.deepcopy(self.params)
        toc = time.time()
        print('DONE (t={:0.2f}s).'.format(toc-tic))

    def computeIoU(self, imgId, catId):
        p = self.params
        if p.useCats:
            gt = self._gts[imgId,catId]
            dt = self._dts[imgId,catId]
        else:
            gt = [_ for cId in p.catIds for _ in self._gts[imgId,cId]]
            dt = [_ for cId in p.catIds for _ in self._dts[imgId,cId]]
        if len(gt) == 0 and len(dt) ==0:
            return []
        inds = np.argsort([-d['score'] for d in dt], kind='mergesort')
        dt = [dt[i] for i in inds]
        if len(dt) > p.maxDets[-1]:
            dt=dt[0:p.maxDets[-1]]

        if p.iouType == 'segm':
            g = [g['segmentation'] for g in gt]
            d = [d['segmentation'] for d in dt]
        elif p.iouType == 'bbox':
            g = [g['bbox'] for g in gt]
            d = [d['bbox'] for d in dt]
        else:
            raise Exception('unknown iouType for iou computation')

        # compute iou between each dt and gt region
        iscrowd = [int(o['iscrowd']) for o in gt]
        ious = maskUtils.iou(d,g,iscrowd)
        return ious

    def computeOks(self, imgId, catId):
        p = self.params
        # dimention here should be Nxm
        gts = self._gts[imgId, catId]
        dts = self._dts[imgId, catId]
        inds = np.argsort([-d['score'] for d in dts], kind='mergesort')
        dts = [dts[i] for i in inds]
        if len(dts) > p.maxDets[-1]:
            dts = dts[0:p.maxDets[-1]]
        # if len(gts) == 0 and len(dts) == 0:
        if len(gts) == 0 or len(dts) == 0:
            return []
        ious = np.zeros((len(dts), len(gts)))
        sigmas = np.array([.26, .25, .25, .35, .35, .79, .79, .72, .72, .62,.62, 1.07, 1.07, .87, .87, .89, .89])/10.0
        vars = (sigmas * 2)**2
        k = len(sigmas)
        # compute oks between each detection and ground truth object
        for j, gt in enumerate(gts):
            # create bounds for ignore regions(double the gt bbox)
            g = np.array(gt['keypoints'])
            xg = g[0::3]; yg = g[1::3]; vg = g[2::3]
            k1 = np.count_nonzero(vg > 0)
            bb = gt['bbox']
            x0 = bb[0] - bb[2]; x1 = bb[0] + bb[2] * 2
            y0 = bb[1] - bb[3]; y1 = bb[1] + bb[3] * 2
            for i, dt in enumerate(dts):
                d = np.array(dt['keypoints'])
                xd = d[0::3]; yd = d[1::3]
                if k1>0:
                    # measure the per-keypoint distance if keypoints visible
                    dx = xd - xg
                    dy = yd - yg
                else:
                    # measure minimum distance to keypoints in (x0,y0) & (x1,y1)
                    z = np.zeros((k))
                    dx = np.max((z, x0-xd),axis=0)+np.max((z, xd-x1),axis=0)
                    dy = np.max((z, y0-yd),axis=0)+np.max((z, yd-y1),axis=0)
                e = (dx**2 + dy**2) / vars / (gt['area']+np.spacing(1)) / 2
                if k1 > 0:
                    e=e[vg > 0]
                ious[i, j] = np.sum(np.exp(-e)) / e.shape[0]
        return ious

    def evaluateImg(self, imgId, catId, aRng, maxDet):
        '''
        perform evaluation for single category and image
        :return: dict (single image results)
        '''
        p = self.params
        if p.useCats:
            gt = self._gts[imgId,catId]
            dt = self._dts[imgId,catId]
        else:
            gt = [_ for cId in p.catIds for _ in self._gts[imgId,cId]]
            dt = [_ for cId in p.catIds for _ in self._dts[imgId,cId]]
        if len(gt) == 0 and len(dt) ==0:
            return None

        for g in gt:
            if g['ignore'] or (g['area']<aRng[0] or g['area']>aRng[1]):
                g['_ignore'] = 1
            else:
                g['_ignore'] = 0

        # sort dt highest score first, sort gt ignore last
        gtind = np.argsort([g['_ignore'] for g in gt], kind='mergesort')
        gt = [gt[i] for i in gtind]
        dtind = np.argsort([-d['score'] for d in dt], kind='mergesort')
        dt = [dt[i] for i in dtind[0:maxDet]]
        iscrowd = [int(o['iscrowd']) for o in gt]
        # load computed ious
        ious = self.ious[imgId, catId][:, gtind] if len(self.ious[imgId, catId]) > 0 else self.ious[imgId, catId]

        T = len(p.iouThrs)
        G = len(gt)
        D = len(dt)
        gtm  = np.zeros((T,G))
        dtm  = np.zeros((T,D))
        gtIg = np.array([g['_ignore'] for g in gt])
        dtIg = np.zeros((T,D))
        if not len(ious)==0:
            for tind, t in enumerate(p.iouThrs):
                for dind, d in enumerate(dt):
                    # information about best match so far (m=-1 -> unmatched)
                    iou = min([t,1-1e-10])
                    m   = -1
                    for gind, g in enumerate(gt):
                        # if this gt already matched, and not a crowd, continue
                        if gtm[tind,gind]>0 and not iscrowd[gind]:
                            continue
                        # if dt matched to reg gt, and on ignore gt, stop
                        if m>-1 and gtIg[m]==0 and gtIg[gind]==1:
                            break
                        # continue to next gt unless better match made
                        if ious[dind,gind] < iou:
                            continue
                        # if match successful and best so far, store appropriately
                        iou=ious[dind,gind]
                        m=gind
                    # if match made store id of match for both dt and gt
                    if m ==-1:
                        continue
                    dtIg[tind,dind] = gtIg[m]
                    dtm[tind,dind]  = gt[m]['id']
                    gtm[tind,m]     = d['id']
        # set unmatched detections outside of area range to ignore
        a = np.array([d['area']<aRng[0] or d['area']>aRng[1] for d in dt]).reshape((1, len(dt)))
        dtIg = np.logical_or(dtIg, np.logical_and(dtm==0, np.repeat(a,T,0)))
        # store results for given image and category
        return {
                'image_id':     imgId,
                'category_id':  catId,
                'aRng':         aRng,
                'maxDet':       maxDet,
                'dtIds':        [d['id'] for d in dt],
                'gtIds':        [g['id'] for g in gt],
                'dtMatches':    dtm,
                'gtMatches':    gtm,
                'dtScores':     [d['score'] for d in dt],
                'gtIgnore':     gtIg,
                'dtIgnore':     dtIg,
            }

    def accumulate(self, p = None):
        '''
        Accumulate per image evaluation results and store the result in self.eval
        :param p: input params for evaluation
        :return: None
        '''
        print('Accumulating evaluation results...')
        tic = time.time()
        if not self.evalImgs:
            print('Please run evaluate() first')
        # allows input customized parameters
        if p is None:
            p = self.params
        p.catIds = p.catIds if p.useCats == 1 else [-1]
        T           = len(p.iouThrs)
        R           = len(p.recThrs)
        K           = len(p.catIds) if p.useCats else 1
        A           = len(p.areaRng)
        M           = len(p.maxDets)
        precision   = -np.ones((T,R,K,A,M)) # -1 for the precision of absent categories
        recall      = -np.ones((T,K,A,M))
        scores      = -np.ones((T,R,K,A,M))

        # create dictionary for future indexing
        _pe = self._paramsEval
        catIds = _pe.catIds if _pe.useCats else [-1]
        setK = set(catIds)
        setA = set(map(tuple, _pe.areaRng))
        setM = set(_pe.maxDets)
        setI = set(_pe.imgIds)
        # get inds to evaluate
        k_list = [n for n, k in enumerate(p.catIds)  if k in setK]
        m_list = [m for n, m in enumerate(p.maxDets) if m in setM]
        a_list = [n for n, a in enumerate(map(lambda x: tuple(x), p.areaRng)) if a in setA]
        i_list = [n for n, i in enumerate(p.imgIds)  if i in setI]
        I0 = len(_pe.imgIds)
        A0 = len(_pe.areaRng)
        # retrieve E at each category, area range, and max number of detections
        for k, k0 in enumerate(k_list):
            Nk = k0*A0*I0
            for a, a0 in enumerate(a_list):
                Na = a0*I0
                for m, maxDet in enumerate(m_list):
                    E = [self.evalImgs[Nk + Na + i] for i in i_list]
                    E = [e for e in E if not e is None]
                    if len(E) == 0:
                        continue
                    dtScores = np.concatenate([e['dtScores'][0:maxDet] for e in E])

                    # different sorting method generates slightly different results.
                    # mergesort is used to be consistent as Matlab implementation.
                    inds = np.argsort(-dtScores, kind='mergesort')
                    dtScoresSorted = dtScores[inds]

                    dtm  = np.concatenate([e['dtMatches'][:,0:maxDet] for e in E], axis=1)[:,inds]
                    dtIg = np.concatenate([e['dtIgnore'][:,0:maxDet]  for e in E], axis=1)[:,inds]
                    gtIg = np.concatenate([e['gtIgnore'] for e in E])
                    npig = np.count_nonzero(gtIg==0 )
                    if npig == 0:
                        continue
                    tps = np.logical_and(               dtm,  np.logical_not(dtIg) )
                    fps = np.logical_and(np.logical_not(dtm), np.logical_not(dtIg) )

                    tp_sum = np.cumsum(tps, axis=1).astype(dtype=np.float)
                    fp_sum = np.cumsum(fps, axis=1).astype(dtype=np.float)
                    for t, (tp, fp) in enumerate(zip(tp_sum, fp_sum)):
                        tp = np.array(tp)
                        fp = np.array(fp)
                        nd = len(tp)
                        rc = tp / npig
                        pr = tp / (fp+tp+np.spacing(1))
                        q  = np.zeros((R,))
                        ss = np.zeros((R,))

                        if nd:
                            recall[t,k,a,m] = rc[-1]
                        else:
                            recall[t,k,a,m] = 0

                        # numpy is slow without cython optimization for accessing elements
                        # use python array gets significant speed improvement
                        pr = pr.tolist(); q = q.tolist()

                        for i in range(nd-1, 0, -1):
                            if pr[i] > pr[i-1]:
                                pr[i-1] = pr[i]

                        inds = np.searchsorted(rc, p.recThrs, side='left')
                        try:
                            for ri, pi in enumerate(inds):
                                q[ri] = pr[pi]
                                ss[ri] = dtScoresSorted[pi]
                        except:
                            pass
                        precision[t,:,k,a,m] = np.array(q)
                        scores[t,:,k,a,m] = np.array(ss)
        self.eval = {
            'params': p,
            'counts': [T, R, K, A, M],
            'date': datetime.datetime.now().strftime('%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S'),
            'precision': precision,
            'recall':   recall,
            'scores': scores,
        }
        toc = time.time()
        print('DONE (t={:0.2f}s).'.format( toc-tic))

    def summarize(self):
        '''
        Compute and display summary metrics for evaluation results.
        Note this functin can *only* be applied on the default parameter setting
        '''
        def _summarize( ap=1, iouThr=None, areaRng='all', maxDets=100 ):
            p = self.params
            iStr = ' {:<18} {} @[ IoU={:<9} | area={:>6s} | maxDets={:>3d} ] = {:0.3f}'
            titleStr = 'Average Precision' if ap == 1 else 'Average Recall'
            typeStr = '(AP)' if ap==1 else '(AR)'
            iouStr = '{:0.2f}:{:0.2f}'.format(p.iouThrs[0], p.iouThrs[-1]) \
                if iouThr is None else '{:0.2f}'.format(iouThr)

            aind = [i for i, aRng in enumerate(p.areaRngLbl) if aRng == areaRng]
            mind = [i for i, mDet in enumerate(p.maxDets) if mDet == maxDets]
            if ap == 1:
                # dimension of precision: [TxRxKxAxM]
                s = self.eval['precision']
                # IoU
                if iouThr is not None:
                    t = np.where(iouThr == p.iouThrs)[0]
                    s = s[t]
                s = s[:,:,:,aind,mind]
            else:
                # dimension of recall: [TxKxAxM]
                s = self.eval['recall']
                if iouThr is not None:
                    t = np.where(iouThr == p.iouThrs)[0]
                    s = s[t]
                s = s[:,:,aind,mind]
            if len(s[s>-1])==0:
                mean_s = -1
            else:
                mean_s = np.mean(s[s>-1])
            print(iStr.format(titleStr, typeStr, iouStr, areaRng, maxDets, mean_s))
            return mean_s
        def _summarizeDets():
            stats = np.zeros((12,))
            stats[0] = _summarize(1)
            stats[1] = _summarize(1, iouThr=.5, maxDets=self.params.maxDets[2])
            stats[2] = _summarize(1, iouThr=.75, maxDets=self.params.maxDets[2])
            stats[3] = _summarize(1, areaRng='small', maxDets=self.params.maxDets[2])
            stats[4] = _summarize(1, areaRng='medium', maxDets=self.params.maxDets[2])
            stats[5] = _summarize(1, areaRng='large', maxDets=self.params.maxDets[2])
            stats[6] = _summarize(0, maxDets=self.params.maxDets[0])
            stats[7] = _summarize(0, maxDets=self.params.maxDets[1])
            stats[8] = _summarize(0, maxDets=self.params.maxDets[2])
            stats[9] = _summarize(0, areaRng='small', maxDets=self.params.maxDets[2])
            stats[10] = _summarize(0, areaRng='medium', maxDets=self.params.maxDets[2])
            stats[11] = _summarize(0, areaRng='large', maxDets=self.params.maxDets[2])
            return stats
        def _summarizeKps():
            stats = np.zeros((10,))
            stats[0] = _summarize(1, maxDets=20)
            stats[1] = _summarize(1, maxDets=20, iouThr=.5)
            stats[2] = _summarize(1, maxDets=20, iouThr=.75)
            stats[3] = _summarize(1, maxDets=20, areaRng='medium')
            stats[4] = _summarize(1, maxDets=20, areaRng='large')
            stats[5] = _summarize(0, maxDets=20)
            stats[6] = _summarize(0, maxDets=20, iouThr=.5)
            stats[7] = _summarize(0, maxDets=20, iouThr=.75)
            stats[8] = _summarize(0, maxDets=20, areaRng='medium')
            stats[9] = _summarize(0, maxDets=20, areaRng='large')
            return stats
        if not self.eval:
            raise Exception('Please run accumulate() first')
        iouType = self.params.iouType
        if iouType == 'segm' or iouType == 'bbox':
            summarize = _summarizeDets
        elif iouType == 'keypoints':
            summarize = _summarizeKps
        self.stats = summarize()

    def __str__(self):
        self.summarize()

class Params:
    '''
    Params for coco evaluation api
    '''
    def setDetParams(self):
        self.imgIds = []
        self.catIds = []
        # np.arange causes trouble.  the data point on arange is slightly larger than the true value
        self.iouThrs = np.linspace(.5, 0.95, np.round((0.95 - .5) / .05) + 1, endpoint=True)
        self.recThrs = np.linspace(.0, 1.00, np.round((1.00 - .0) / .01) + 1, endpoint=True)
        self.maxDets = [1, 10, 100]
        self.areaRng = [[0 ** 2, 1e5 ** 2], [0 ** 2, 32 ** 2], [32 ** 2, 96 ** 2], [96 ** 2, 1e5 ** 2]]
        self.areaRngLbl = ['all', 'small', 'medium', 'large']
        self.useCats = 1

    def setKpParams(self):
        self.imgIds = []
        self.catIds = []
        # np.arange causes trouble.  the data point on arange is slightly larger than the true value
        self.iouThrs = np.linspace(.5, 0.95, np.round((0.95 - .5) / .05) + 1, endpoint=True)
        self.recThrs = np.linspace(.0, 1.00, np.round((1.00 - .0) / .01) + 1, endpoint=True)
        self.maxDets = [20]
        self.areaRng = [[0 ** 2, 1e5 ** 2], [32 ** 2, 96 ** 2], [96 ** 2, 1e5 ** 2]]
        self.areaRngLbl = ['all', 'medium', 'large']
        self.useCats = 1

    def __init__(self, iouType='segm'):
        if iouType == 'segm' or iouType == 'bbox':
            self.setDetParams()
        elif iouType == 'keypoints':
            self.setKpParams()
        else:
            raise Exception('iouType not supported')
        self.iouType = iouType
        # useSegm is deprecated
        self.useSegm = None

3. 评测指标示例 - pycocoEvalDemo

PythonAPI/pycocoEvalDemo.ipynb

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from pycocotools.coco import COCO
from pycocotools.cocoeval import COCOeval
import numpy as np
import skimage.io as io
import pylab
pylab.rcParams['figure.figsize'] = (10.0, 8.0)


annType = ['segm','bbox','keypoints']
annType = annType[1]      # specify type here - bbox 类型
prefix = 'person_keypoints' if annType=='keypoints' else 'instances'
print 'Running demo for *%s* results.'%(annType)

#initialize COCO ground truth api
dataDir='../'
dataType='val2014'
annFile = '%s/annotations/%s_%s.json'%(dataDir,prefix,dataType)
cocoGt=COCO(annFile)

#initialize COCO detections api
resFile='%s/results/%s_%s_fake%s100_results.json'
resFile = resFile%(dataDir, prefix, dataType, annType)
cocoDt=cocoGt.loadRes(resFile)

imgIds=sorted(cocoGt.getImgIds())
imgIds=imgIds[0:100]
imgId = imgIds[np.random.randint(100)]

# running evaluation
cocoEval = COCOeval(cocoGt,cocoDt,annType)
cocoEval.params.imgIds  = imgIds
cocoEval.evaluate()
cocoEval.accumulate()
cocoEval.summarize()

输出结果如:

Running per image evaluation...      
DONE (t=0.46s).
Accumulating evaluation results...   
DONE (t=0.38s).
 Average Precision  (AP) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area=   all | maxDets=100 ] = 0.505
 Average Precision  (AP) @[ IoU=0.50      | area=   all | maxDets=100 ] = 0.697
 Average Precision  (AP) @[ IoU=0.75      | area=   all | maxDets=100 ] = 0.573
 Average Precision  (AP) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area= small | maxDets=100 ] = 0.586
 Average Precision  (AP) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area=medium | maxDets=100 ] = 0.519
 Average Precision  (AP) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area= large | maxDets=100 ] = 0.501
 Average Recall     (AR) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area=   all | maxDets=  1 ] = 0.387
 Average Recall     (AR) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area=   all | maxDets= 10 ] = 0.594
 Average Recall     (AR) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area=   all | maxDets=100 ] = 0.595
 Average Recall     (AR) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area= small | maxDets=100 ] = 0.640
 Average Recall     (AR) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area=medium | maxDets=100 ] = 0.566
 Average Recall     (AR) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area= large | maxDets=100 ] = 0.564

4. COCO 类

PythonAPI/pycocotools/coco.py

COCO 格式数据集的类:

__author__ = 'tylin'
__version__ = '2.0'

# API用于将 COCO 标注数据集 annotations 直接加载到 Python 字典.
# 还提供了其它辅助函数.
# 该 API 同时支持 *instance* 和 *caption* 的标注数据.
# 但,并未定义 *caption* 的全部函数(如,categories 暂未定义).

# API 中包含的函数如下:
# 其中,"ann"=annotation, "cat"=category, and "img"=image.
#  COCO       - COCO api class that loads COCO annotation file and prepare data structures.
#  decodeMask - Decode binary mask M encoded via run-length encoding.
#  encodeMask - Encode binary mask M using run-length encoding.
#  getAnnIds  - Get ann ids that satisfy given filter conditions.
#  getCatIds  - Get cat ids that satisfy given filter conditions.
#  getImgIds  - Get img ids that satisfy given filter conditions.
#  loadAnns   - Load anns with the specified ids.
#  loadCats   - Load cats with the specified ids.
#  loadImgs   - Load imgs with the specified ids.
#  annToMask  - Convert segmentation in an annotation to binary mask.
#  showAnns   - Display the specified annotations.
#  loadRes    - Load algorithm results and create API for accessing them.
#  download   - Download COCO images from mscoco.org server.


import json
import time
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from matplotlib.collections import PatchCollection
from matplotlib.patches import Polygon
import numpy as np
import copy
import itertools
from . import mask as maskUtils
import os
from collections import defaultdict
import sys
PYTHON_VERSION = sys.version_info[0]
if PYTHON_VERSION == 2:
    from urllib import urlretrieve
elif PYTHON_VERSION == 3:
    from urllib.request import urlretrieve


def _isArrayLike(obj):
    return hasattr(obj, '__iter__') and hasattr(obj, '__len__')


class COCO:
    def __init__(self, annotation_file=None):
        """
        Constructor of Microsoft COCO helper class for reading and visualizing annotations.
        :param annotation_file (str): location of annotation file
        :param image_folder (str): location to the folder that hosts images.
        :return:
        """
        # load dataset
        self.dataset,self.anns,self.cats,self.imgs = dict(),dict(),dict(),dict()
        self.imgToAnns, self.catToImgs = defaultdict(list), defaultdict(list)
        if not annotation_file == None:
            print('loading annotations into memory...')
            tic = time.time()
            dataset = json.load(open(annotation_file, 'r'))
            assert type(dataset)==dict, 'annotation file format {} not supported'.format(type(dataset))
            print('Done (t={:0.2f}s)'.format(time.time()- tic))
            self.dataset = dataset
            self.createIndex()

    def createIndex(self):
        # create index
        print('creating index...')
        anns, cats, imgs = {}, {}, {}
        imgToAnns,catToImgs = defaultdict(list),defaultdict(list)
        if 'annotations' in self.dataset:
            for ann in self.dataset['annotations']:
                imgToAnns[ann['image_id']].append(ann)
                anns[ann['id']] = ann

        if 'images' in self.dataset:
            for img in self.dataset['images']:
                imgs[img['id']] = img

        if 'categories' in self.dataset:
            for cat in self.dataset['categories']:
                cats[cat['id']] = cat

        if 'annotations' in self.dataset and 'categories' in self.dataset:
            for ann in self.dataset['annotations']:
                catToImgs[ann['category_id']].append(ann['image_id'])

        print('index created!')

        # create class members
        self.anns = anns
        self.imgToAnns = imgToAnns
        self.catToImgs = catToImgs
        self.imgs = imgs
        self.cats = cats

    def info(self):
        """
        Print information about the annotation file.
        :return:
        """
        for key, value in self.dataset['info'].items():
            print('{}: {}'.format(key, value))

    def getAnnIds(self, imgIds=[], catIds=[], areaRng=[], iscrowd=None):
        """
        Get ann ids that satisfy given filter conditions. default skips that filter
        :param imgIds  (int array)     : get anns for given imgs
               catIds  (int array)     : get anns for given cats
               areaRng (float array)   : get anns for given area range (e.g. [0 inf])
               iscrowd (boolean)       : get anns for given crowd label (False or True)
        :return: ids (int array)       : integer array of ann ids
        """
        imgIds = imgIds if _isArrayLike(imgIds) else [imgIds]
        catIds = catIds if _isArrayLike(catIds) else [catIds]

        if len(imgIds) == len(catIds) == len(areaRng) == 0:
            anns = self.dataset['annotations']
        else:
            if not len(imgIds) == 0:
                lists = [self.imgToAnns[imgId] for imgId in imgIds if imgId in self.imgToAnns]
                anns = list(itertools.chain.from_iterable(lists))
            else:
                anns = self.dataset['annotations']
            anns = anns if len(catIds)  == 0 else [ann for ann in anns if ann['category_id'] in catIds]
            anns = anns if len(areaRng) == 0 else [ann for ann in anns if ann['area'] > areaRng[0] and ann['area'] < areaRng[1]]
        if not iscrowd == None:
            ids = [ann['id'] for ann in anns if ann['iscrowd'] == iscrowd]
        else:
            ids = [ann['id'] for ann in anns]
        return ids

    def getCatIds(self, catNms=[], supNms=[], catIds=[]):
        """
        filtering parameters. default skips that filter.
        :param catNms (str array)  : get cats for given cat names
        :param supNms (str array)  : get cats for given supercategory names
        :param catIds (int array)  : get cats for given cat ids
        :return: ids (int array)   : integer array of cat ids
        """
        catNms = catNms if _isArrayLike(catNms) else [catNms]
        supNms = supNms if _isArrayLike(supNms) else [supNms]
        catIds = catIds if _isArrayLike(catIds) else [catIds]

        if len(catNms) == len(supNms) == len(catIds) == 0:
            cats = self.dataset['categories']
        else:
            cats = self.dataset['categories']
            cats = cats if len(catNms) == 0 else [cat for cat in cats if cat['name']          in catNms]
            cats = cats if len(supNms) == 0 else [cat for cat in cats if cat['supercategory'] in supNms]
            cats = cats if len(catIds) == 0 else [cat for cat in cats if cat['id']            in catIds]
        ids = [cat['id'] for cat in cats]
        return ids

    def getImgIds(self, imgIds=[], catIds=[]):
        '''
        Get img ids that satisfy given filter conditions.
        :param imgIds (int array) : get imgs for given ids
        :param catIds (int array) : get imgs with all given cats
        :return: ids (int array)  : integer array of img ids
        '''
        imgIds = imgIds if _isArrayLike(imgIds) else [imgIds]
        catIds = catIds if _isArrayLike(catIds) else [catIds]

        if len(imgIds) == len(catIds) == 0:
            ids = self.imgs.keys()
        else:
            ids = set(imgIds)
            for i, catId in enumerate(catIds):
                if i == 0 and len(ids) == 0:
                    ids = set(self.catToImgs[catId])
                else:
                    ids &= set(self.catToImgs[catId])
        return list(ids)

    def loadAnns(self, ids=[]):
        """
        Load anns with the specified ids.
        :param ids (int array)       : integer ids specifying anns
        :return: anns (object array) : loaded ann objects
        """
        if _isArrayLike(ids):
            return [self.anns[id] for id in ids]
        elif type(ids) == int:
            return [self.anns[ids]]

    def loadCats(self, ids=[]):
        """
        Load cats with the specified ids.
        :param ids (int array)       : integer ids specifying cats
        :return: cats (object array) : loaded cat objects
        """
        if _isArrayLike(ids):
            return [self.cats[id] for id in ids]
        elif type(ids) == int:
            return [self.cats[ids]]

    def loadImgs(self, ids=[]):
        """
        Load anns with the specified ids.
        :param ids (int array)       : integer ids specifying img
        :return: imgs (object array) : loaded img objects
        """
        if _isArrayLike(ids):
            return [self.imgs[id] for id in ids]
        elif type(ids) == int:
            return [self.imgs[ids]]

    def showAnns(self, anns):
        """
        Display the specified annotations.
        :param anns (array of object): annotations to display
        :return: None
        """
        if len(anns) == 0:
            return 0
        if 'segmentation' in anns[0] or 'keypoints' in anns[0]:
            datasetType = 'instances'
        elif 'caption' in anns[0]:
            datasetType = 'captions'
        else:
            raise Exception('datasetType not supported')
        if datasetType == 'instances':
            ax = plt.gca()
            ax.set_autoscale_on(False)
            polygons = []
            color = []
            for ann in anns:
                c = (np.random.random((1, 3))*0.6+0.4).tolist()[0]
                if 'segmentation' in ann:
                    if type(ann['segmentation']) == list:
                        # polygon
                        for seg in ann['segmentation']:
                            poly = np.array(seg).reshape((int(len(seg)/2), 2))
                            polygons.append(Polygon(poly))
                            color.append(c)
                    else:
                        # mask
                        t = self.imgs[ann['image_id']]
                        if type(ann['segmentation']['counts']) == list:
                            rle = maskUtils.frPyObjects([ann['segmentation']], t['height'], t['width'])
                        else:
                            rle = [ann['segmentation']]
                        m = maskUtils.decode(rle)
                        img = np.ones( (m.shape[0], m.shape[1], 3) )
                        if ann['iscrowd'] == 1:
                            color_mask = np.array([2.0,166.0,101.0])/255
                        if ann['iscrowd'] == 0:
                            color_mask = np.random.random((1, 3)).tolist()[0]
                        for i in range(3):
                            img[:,:,i] = color_mask[i]
                        ax.imshow(np.dstack( (img, m*0.5) ))
                if 'keypoints' in ann and type(ann['keypoints']) == list:
                    # turn skeleton into zero-based index
                    sks = np.array(self.loadCats(ann['category_id'])[0]['skeleton'])-1
                    kp = np.array(ann['keypoints'])
                    x = kp[0::3]
                    y = kp[1::3]
                    v = kp[2::3]
                    for sk in sks:
                        if np.all(v[sk]>0):
                            plt.plot(x[sk],y[sk], linewidth=3, color=c)
                    plt.plot(x[v>0], y[v>0],'o',markersize=8, markerfacecolor=c, markeredgecolor='k',markeredgewidth=2)
                    plt.plot(x[v>1], y[v>1],'o',markersize=8, markerfacecolor=c, markeredgecolor=c, markeredgewidth=2)
            p = PatchCollection(polygons, facecolor=color, linewidths=0, alpha=0.4)
            ax.add_collection(p)
            p = PatchCollection(polygons, facecolor='none', edgecolors=color, linewidths=2)
            ax.add_collection(p)
        elif datasetType == 'captions':
            for ann in anns:
                print(ann['caption'])

    def loadRes(self, resFile):
        """
        Load result file and return a result api object.
        :param   resFile (str)     : file name of result file
        :return: res (obj)         : result api object
        """
        res = COCO()
        res.dataset['images'] = [img for img in self.dataset['images']]

        print('Loading and preparing results...')
        tic = time.time()
        if type(resFile) == str or type(resFile) == unicode:
            anns = json.load(open(resFile))
        elif type(resFile) == np.ndarray:
            anns = self.loadNumpyAnnotations(resFile)
        else:
            anns = resFile
        assert type(anns) == list, 'results in not an array of objects'
        annsImgIds = [ann['image_id'] for ann in anns]
        assert set(annsImgIds) == (set(annsImgIds) & set(self.getImgIds())), \
               'Results do not correspond to current coco set'
        if 'caption' in anns[0]:
            imgIds = set([img['id'] for img in res.dataset['images']]) & set([ann['image_id'] for ann in anns])
            res.dataset['images'] = [img for img in res.dataset['images'] if img['id'] in imgIds]
            for id, ann in enumerate(anns):
                ann['id'] = id+1
        elif 'bbox' in anns[0] and not anns[0]['bbox'] == []:
            res.dataset['categories'] = copy.deepcopy(self.dataset['categories'])
            for id, ann in enumerate(anns):
                bb = ann['bbox']
                x1, x2, y1, y2 = [bb[0], bb[0]+bb[2], bb[1], bb[1]+bb[3]]
                if not 'segmentation' in ann:
                    ann['segmentation'] = [[x1, y1, x1, y2, x2, y2, x2, y1]]
                ann['area'] = bb[2]*bb[3]
                ann['id'] = id+1
                ann['iscrowd'] = 0
        elif 'segmentation' in anns[0]:
            res.dataset['categories'] = copy.deepcopy(self.dataset['categories'])
            for id, ann in enumerate(anns):
                # now only support compressed RLE format as segmentation results
                ann['area'] = maskUtils.area(ann['segmentation'])
                if not 'bbox' in ann:
                    ann['bbox'] = maskUtils.toBbox(ann['segmentation'])
                ann['id'] = id+1
                ann['iscrowd'] = 0
        elif 'keypoints' in anns[0]:
            res.dataset['categories'] = copy.deepcopy(self.dataset['categories'])
            for id, ann in enumerate(anns):
                s = ann['keypoints']
                x = s[0::3]
                y = s[1::3]
                x0,x1,y0,y1 = np.min(x), np.max(x), np.min(y), np.max(y)
                ann['area'] = (x1-x0)*(y1-y0)
                ann['id'] = id + 1
                ann['bbox'] = [x0,y0,x1-x0,y1-y0]
        print('DONE (t={:0.2f}s)'.format(time.time()- tic))

        res.dataset['annotations'] = anns
        res.createIndex()
        return res

    def download(self, tarDir = None, imgIds = [] ):
        '''
        Download COCO images from mscoco.org server.
        :param tarDir (str): COCO results directory name
               imgIds (list): images to be downloaded
        :return:
        '''
        if tarDir is None:
            print('Please specify target directory')
            return -1
        if len(imgIds) == 0:
            imgs = self.imgs.values()
        else:
            imgs = self.loadImgs(imgIds)
        N = len(imgs)
        if not os.path.exists(tarDir):
            os.makedirs(tarDir)
        for i, img in enumerate(imgs):
            tic = time.time()
            fname = os.path.join(tarDir, img['file_name'])
            if not os.path.exists(fname):
                urlretrieve(img['coco_url'], fname)
            print('downloaded {}/{} images (t={:0.1f}s)'.format(i, N, time.time()- tic))

    def loadNumpyAnnotations(self, data):
        """
        Convert result data from a numpy array [Nx7] where each row contains {imageID,x1,y1,w,h,score,class}
        :param  data (numpy.ndarray)
        :return: annotations (python nested list)
        """
        print('Converting ndarray to lists...')
        assert(type(data) == np.ndarray)
        print(data.shape)
        assert(data.shape[1] == 7)
        N = data.shape[0]
        ann = []
        for i in range(N):
            if i % 1000000 == 0:
                print('{}/{}'.format(i,N))
            ann += [{
                'image_id'  : int(data[i, 0]),
                'bbox'  : [ data[i, 1], data[i, 2], data[i, 3], data[i, 4] ],
                'score' : data[i, 5],
                'category_id': int(data[i, 6]),
                }]
        return ann

    def annToRLE(self, ann):
        """
        Convert annotation which can be polygons, uncompressed RLE to RLE.
        :return: binary mask (numpy 2D array)
        """
        t = self.imgs[ann['image_id']]
        h, w = t['height'], t['width']
        segm = ann['segmentation']
        if type(segm) == list:
            # polygon -- a single object might consist of multiple parts
            # we merge all parts into one mask rle code
            rles = maskUtils.frPyObjects(segm, h, w)
            rle = maskUtils.merge(rles)
        elif type(segm['counts']) == list:
            # uncompressed RLE
            rle = maskUtils.frPyObjects(segm, h, w)
        else:
            # rle
            rle = ann['segmentation']
        return rle

    def annToMask(self, ann):
        """
        Convert annotation which can be polygons, uncompressed RLE, or RLE to binary mask.
        :return: binary mask (numpy 2D array)
        """
        rle = self.annToRLE(ann)
        m = maskUtils.decode(rle)
        return m
Last modification:May 10th, 2019 at 10:45 am

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